Physics: heat dilates air. Heating a glassball tube, air expands out of it as bubbles through water - Vintage Nostalgia
Physics: heat dilates air. Heating a glassball tube, air expands out of it as bubbles through water

Heating a glassball tube, the air contained in it expands out of it and forms bubbles through water.

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Pressurized gas produces mechanical motion. - Vintage Nostalgia
Pressurized gas produces mechanical motion.

Illustration from an old chemistry book: very base of the steam engine

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Lavoisier experiment: discovery water composition by decomposing water vapour over hot iron. - Vintage Nostalgia
Lavoisier experiment: discovery water composition by decomposing water vapour over hot iron.

The discovery that water is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen was made in the early 1780s. Lavoisier demonstrated that iron reacts with water releasing hydrogen.

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Chemistry: collection of gas over water - Vintage Nostalgia
Chemistry: collection of gas over water

A gas-developing reaction takes place in a heated glass tube and the gas is collected in a container filled with water and inverted in a reservoir of water. As the gas is created, it will displace water from the bottle.

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Chemistry: heat conduction in fluids - Vintage Nostalgia
Chemistry: heat conduction in fluids

Water is boiling at the top of the test tube, but it is cold at the bottom.

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Chemistry: distillation by alembic - Vintage Nostalgia
Chemistry: distillation by alembic

Illustration from an old chemistry book

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Chemistry: heating by vapor - Vintage Nostalgia
Chemistry: heating by vapor

The bended glass pipe canalizes vapor from the boiling water in the closed flask to the receiving glass on the left, causing the water inside to boil too.

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Chemistry: transition from boiling water to vapor. - Vintage Nostalgia
Chemistry: transition from boiling water to vapor.

Illustration from an old chemistry book. Occasionally the same happens in the kitchen as well.

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Heat of vaporization: transforming a  substance from liquid into gas - Vintage Nostalgia
Heat of vaporization: transforming a substance from liquid into gas

Heating a glass tube with water, the water boils and transforms into gas by vaporization. In principle the glass tube can be replaced by a cooking pan.

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