Fluids thermal expansion: the volume of a fluid increases when temperature rises - Vintage Nostalgia
Fluids thermal expansion: the volume of a fluid increases when temperature rises

By heating a flask full of water it may be observed that as the temperature raises the water expands and its density decreases.

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Archimedes’ principle experiment using a hand balance:  an iron piece weights less in water then in air - Vintage Nostalgia
Archimedes’ principle experiment using a hand balance: an iron piece weights less in water then in air

Any object, wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object (Archimedes’ principle).

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Chemistry: heat conduction in fluids - Vintage Nostalgia
Chemistry: heat conduction in fluids

Water is boiling at the top of the test tube, but it is cold at the bottom.

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Chemistry: distillation by alembic - Vintage Nostalgia
Chemistry: distillation by alembic

Illustration from an old chemistry book

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Chemistry: heating by vapor - Vintage Nostalgia
Chemistry: heating by vapor

The bended glass pipe canalizes vapor from the boiling water in the closed flask to the receiving glass on the left, causing the water inside to boil too.

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Chemistry: transition from boiling water to vapor. - Vintage Nostalgia
Chemistry: transition from boiling water to vapor.

Illustration from an old chemistry book. Occasionally the same happens in the kitchen as well.

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Heat of vaporization: transforming a  substance from liquid into gas - Vintage Nostalgia
Heat of vaporization: transforming a substance from liquid into gas

Heating a glass tube with water, the water boils and transforms into gas by vaporization. In principle the glass tube can be replaced by a cooking pan.

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