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Heating a glassball tube, the air contained in it expands out of it and forms bubbles through water.
Illustration from an old chemistry book: very base of the steam engine
The discovery that water is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen was made in the early 1780s. Lavoisier demonstrated that iron reacts with water releasing hydrogen.
A gas-developing reaction takes place in a heated glass tube and the gas is collected in a container filled with water and inverted in a reservoir of water. As the gas is created, it will displace water from the bottle.
Water is boiling at the top of the test tube, but it is cold at the bottom.
Illustration from an old chemistry book
The bended glass pipe canalizes vapor from the boiling water in the closed flask to the receiving glass on the left, causing the water inside to boil too.
Illustration from an old chemistry book. Occasionally the same happens in the kitchen as well.